The chapter of 'Mammals' is based upon information orginated from local people, rangers and guides. The actual presence of these mammals however can not be considered as facts. The description of each mammal is originated form 'Wikipedia' and can be read as general information and in some cases not for the exact mammal. In general however, this chapter is a good representative of mammals in the North-East of Cambodia.

 

Tiger

 

 

The tiger (Panthera tigris) is a member of the Felidae family; the largest of the four "big cats" in the genus Panthera. Native to much of eastern and southern Asia, the tiger is an apex predator and an obligate carnivore. Reaching up to 4 metres (13 ft) in total length and weighing up to 300 kilograms (660 pounds), the larger tiger subspecies are comparable in size to the biggest extinct felids. Aside from their great bulk and power, their most recognizable feature is the pattern of dark vertical stripes that overlays near-white to reddish-orange fur, with lighter underparts

Tigers usually hunt at night. They generally hunt alone and ambush their prey as most other cats do, overpowering them from any angle, using their body size and strength to knock large prey off balance. Even with their great masses, tigers can reach speeds of about 49-65 kilometres per hour (35-40 miles per hour), although they can only do so in short bursts, since they have relatively little stamina; consequently, tigers must be relatively close to their prey before they break their cover. Tigers have great leaping ability; horizontal leaps of up to 10 metres have been reported, although leaps of around half this amount are more typical. However, only one in twenty hunts ends in a successful kill. When hunting large prey, tigers prefer to bite the throat and use their forelimbs to hold onto the prey, bringing it to the ground. The tiger remains latched onto the neck until its prey dies of strangulation. By this method, gaurs and water buffalos weighing over a ton have been killed by tigers weighing about a sixth as much. With small prey, the tiger bites the nape, often breaking the spinal cord, piercing the windpipe, or severing the jugular vein or common carotid artery. Though rarely observed, some tigers have been recorded to kill prey by swiping with their paws, which are powerful enough to smash the skulls of domestic cattle, and break the backs of sloth bears.


Amur Leopard

The leopard (Panthera pardus) is a member of the Felidae family and the smallest of the four "big cats" in the genus Panthera; the other three are the tiger, lion and jaguar. Once distributed across southern Asia and Africa, from Korea to South Africa, the leopard's range of distribution has decreased radically over time due to hunting and loss of habitat, and the leopard now chiefly occurs in sub-Saharan Africa. There are fragmented populations in India, Indochina, Malaysia, and China. Due to the loss of range and continual declines in population, the cat has been downgraded to "Near Threatened" species; its numbers are greater than that of the other Panthera species, all of which face more acute conservation concerns. The leopard has relatively short legs and a long body, with a large skull. Physically, it most closely resembles the jaguar, although it is usually smaller and of slighter build. Its fur is marked with rosettes which lack internal spots, unlike those of the jaguar. Leopards that are melanistic, either completely black or very dark in coloration, are one of the big cats known colloquially as black panthers.


Bats

The Asian Parti-colored Bat (Vespertilio sinensis) is a species of bat. An adult Asian Parti-colored Bat has a body length of 6-7 cm, a tail of 4.3-4.5 cm, and a wing length of 5 cm. The Asian Parti-colored Bats are distributed across East Asia, from Taiwan through eastern China and Siberia to the Korean Peninsula and Japan.


Black bear

Black bear

The Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus or Selenarctos thibetanus), also known as the Asiatic Black Bear, Tibetan black bear, the Himalayan black bear, or the Moon bear, is a medium sized, sharp-clawed, black-colored bear with a distinctive white or cream "V" marking on its chest. It is a close relative of the American black bear with which it is thought to share a European common ancestor.

The Asian Black Bear is an omnivore which consumes a great variety of foods and are opportunistic and seasonal in diet. In fall, they fatten themselves on acorns, chestnuts, walnuts, and other fat-rich resources. They climb trees to get these foods, as well as picking them from the forest floor. In spring, new plant growth provides a bounty for the bears, which seek out bamboo, raspberry, hydrangea, and other plants. They also raid rodents' caches of acorns or collect those left on the forest floor from the previous fall, and may eat the rodents also on the rare occasion of catching them. Other plants offer food in summer, including raspberries, cherries, and grasses. Insect food, especially ants, augments the summer diet. Asian Black Bears will eat carrion, and sometimes attack livestock. Vertebrates, mostly small, are taken when available, including fish, birds, rodents and other mammals. The Asian Black Bear is thought to be somewhat more carnivorous than its American cousin. Nevertheless, meat only makes up a small part of its diet


Yellow cheeked gibbon

Yellow Cheeked gibbon

The Yellow-cheeked Gibbon (Nomascus gabriellae), also called the Yellow-cheeked Crested Gibbon, the Golden-cheeked Crested Gibbon or the Buffed-cheeked Gibbon, is a species of gibbon native to Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. The Yellow-cheeked Gibbon is born blond and later turns black, and males carry this colouring through their lifespan and have the distinguishing golden cheeks; females are born blonde to blend into their mother's fur but they later turn black and turn back to blond at sexual maturity and only have a black cap on the top of their heads. This diurnal and arboreal gibbon lives in primary tropical rainforest, foraging for fruits, using brachiation to move through the trees. The Yellow-cheeked Gibbon, like all gibbon species, has a unique song which is usually initiated by the male. The female will then join in and sing with the male to reinforce their bond and announce to other gibbons that they are a pair in a specific territory. The male usually finishes the song after the female has stopped singing. Little is known about this species in the wild, but it is thought that it has a life span of approximately 46 years. A recent report by the Wildlife Conservation Society counted 2,500 yellow-cheeked crested gibbons in Cambodia’s Seima Biodiversity Conservation Area, an estimate that represents the largest known population of the species in the world.


Pileated gibbon

The Pileated Gibbon

The Pileated Gibbon (Hylobates pileatus) is a primate in the Hylobatidae or gibbon family. The Pileated Gibbon has sexual dimorphism in fur coloration: males have a purely black fur, while the females are have a white-grey colored fur with only the belly and head black. The white and often shaggy hair ring around the head is common to both sexes. The range of the Pileated Gibbon is eastern Thailand, western Cambodia and southwest Laos. Its lifestyle is much like other gibbons: diurnal and arboreal, it lives together in a monogamous pair, brachiates through the trees with its long arms, and predominantly eats fruits, leaves and small animals. Reproduction habits are not well known, but are presumed to be similar to the other gibbons.


Dhole wild dog

Dhole wild dog

The Dhole (Cuon alpinus), also known as the Asiatic Wild Dog, Indian Wild Dog or Red Dog is a mammal of the order Carnivora, and the only member of the genus Cuon.

The Dhole bears many physical similarities to the African Wild Dog and the Bush Dog, most notably in the redundancy of the post-carnassial molars, though whether this is an example of convergence or close relationship is a matter of debate. The Dhole typically weighs 12-20 kilograms (26-44 pounds) and measures 90 centimeters (35 inches) in body length and 50 centimeters (20 inches) shoulder height. The tail measures 40-45 centimeters (16-18 inches) in length. There is little sexual dimorphism. The Dhole has a broad, domed skull and a short, broad muzzle. The bones of the forehead and upper jaw are "swollen", producing a dish-faced profile. The hooded eyes have amber or light brown irises, and the ears are large and rounded. The pelage of the back and flanks is red to brown in colour, while the foreneck, chest and undersides are white or lightly gingered. The fur of specimens from southern ranges is typically short and rusty red, while that of more northern subspecies is longer and more yellow or brown in colour. Dholes from Thailand are more uniform brown, and lack the typical lighter throat and chest, while those from Himalayan regions have more yellowish fur.

The Dhole is primarily a diurnal hunter, though it is not uncommon for it to hunt by night too. Solitary Dholes usually limit themselves to small prey such as Chital fawns and Indian Hares, while a pair or trio of Dholes suffices to kill medium sized ungulates such as deer in 2 minutes. There is at least one account of a Dhole pack managing to pull down an Indian Elephant calf, despite ferocious defence from the mother resulting in multiple Dhole deaths. The Dhole manages to avoid competition with the Leopard and the Tiger by targeting smaller prey and hunting in daylight, unlike the nocturnal felids. The Dhole hunts by scent. It kills large prey in a manner similar to the African Wild Dog, disemboweling and eating the prey whilst it is still alive. The Dhole can eat up to 4 kilograms (8.8 pounds) of meat in an hour, and will compete with one another over a kill through speed of eating rather than fighting. It typically consumes the heart, liver, eyeballs, rump and fetus first. The Dhole drinks frequently after eating, and will actively search for a water source once it has eaten sufficiently. Seasonal scarcity of food is not as much an issue to the Dhole as it is to wolves, so there is less of a rigid dominance hierarchy during feeding. Unlike some canids, the Dhole does not cache its food. Though the majority of its food is obtained by hunting, it will occasionally scavenge from Leopard and Tiger kills. The Dhole has on occasion been observed hunting with pariah dogs


Elds (deer)

Deer

Deer live in a variety of biomes ranging from tundra to the tropical rainforest. While often associated with forests, many deer are ecotone species that live in transitional areas between forests and thickets (for cover) and prairie and savanna (open space). The majority of large deer species inhabit temperate mixed deciduous forest, mountain mixed coniferous forest, tropical seasonal/dry forest, and savanna habitats around the world. Clearing open areas within forests to some extent may actually benefit deer populations by exposing the understory and allowing the types of grasses, weeds, and herbs to grow that deer like to eat. Additionally, access to adjacent croplands may also benefit deer. However, adequate forest or brush cover must still be provided for populations to grow and thrive.

The Chao Praya River Valley of Thailand was once primarily tropical seasonal moist deciduous forest and wet savanna that hosted populations of Hog Deer, the now-extinct Schomburgk's Deer, the Eld's Deer, Indian Sambar, and Indian Muntjac. Both the Hog Deer and Eld's Deer are rare, whereas Indian Sambar and Indian Muntjac thrive in protected national parks such as Khao Yai. Many of these South Asian and Southeast Asian deer species also share their habitat with various herbivores such as Asian Elephants, various Asian rhinoceros species, various antelope species (such as nilgai, Four-horned Antelope, blackbuck, and Indian gazelle in India), and wild oxen (such as Wild Asian Water Buffalo, gaur, banteng, and kouprey). How different herbivores can survive together in a given area is each species have different food preferences, although there may be some overlap.


Asian elephant

Elephant

The Asian or Asiatic Elephant (Elephas maximus), sometimes known by the name of one of its subspecies – the Indian Elephant, is one of the three living species of elephant, and the only living species of the genus Elephas. It is the largest living land animal in Asia. The species is found primarily in Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Indochina and parts of Nepal and Indonesia and Thailand. It is considered endangered, with between 41,410 and 52,345 left in the wild. This animal is widely domesticated, and has been used in forestry in South and Southeast Asia for centuries and also in ceremonial purposes. Historical sources indicate that they were sometimes used during the harvest season primarily for milling. Wild elephants attract tourist money to the areas where they can most readily be seen, but damage crops, and may enter villages to raid gardens.

The Asian elephant is smaller than its African relatives; the easiest way to distinguish the two is that the Asian elephant has smaller ears. The Asian Elephant tends to grow to around two to four meters (7–12 feet) in height and 3,000–5,000 kilograms (6,500–11,000 pounds) in weight. The Asian Elephant has other differences from its African relatives, including a more arched back than the African, one semi-prehensile "finger" at the tip of its trunk as opposed to two, four nails on each hind foot instead of three, and 19 pairs of ribs instead of 21. Also, unlike the African elephant, the female Asian Elephant usually lacks tusks; if tusks — in that case called "tushes" — are present, they are barely visible, and only seen when the female opens her mouth. The enamel plates of the molars are greater in number and closer together in Asian elephants.  Some males may also lack tusks; these individuals are called "makhnas", and are especially common among the Sri Lankan elephant population. Furthermore, the forehead has two hemispherical bulges, unlike the flat front of the African elephant. Unlike African elephants which rarely use their forefeet for anything other than digging or scraping soil, Asian elephants are more agile at using their feet in conjunction with the trunk for manipulating objects.

At most seasons of the year the Indian elephant is a timid animal, much more ready to flee from a foe than to make an attack. Solitary rogues are, however, frequently an exception to this rule, and sometimes make unprovoked attacks on passers-by. Rogue elephant sometimes take up a position near a road, and make it impassable to travellers. Females with calves are at all times dangerous to approach. Contrary to what is stated to be the case with the African species, when an Indian elephant makes a charge, it does so with its trunk tightly curled up, and it makes its attack by trampling its victim with its feet or knees, or, if a male, by pinning it to the ground with its tusks. During musth the male elephant is highly dangerous, not only to human beings, but to its fellow animals. At the first indications of this, domestic elephants are secured tightly to prevent any mishaps; xylazine is also used.


Jungle cat

Jungle cat

The jungle cat (Felis chaus), also called the swamp lynx (although not closely related to the lynxes), is a medium-small cat, but is now considered the largest remaining species of the wild cat genus Felis. It averages 70 cm (28 in), plus a relatively short 20 cm (8 in) tail, and stands about 36 cm (14 in) tall. Weight varies across the range from 4 to 16 kg (8.8 to 35 lbs), though exceptionally heavy specimens have also been reported. Dependent on the subspecies the colour of the fur is yellowish-grey to reddish-brown. While vertical bars are visible on the fur of kittens, these bars disappear in adult cats. Due to the pointed ears and the long legs this cat resembles a small lynx (hence the name "swamp lynx"). This cat is distributed over Egypt, West and Central Asia, South Asia, Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. It inhabits various habitats, for instance savannas, tropical dry forests and the reedbeds along rivers and lakes, but it is not found in rainforests. In some areas the jungle cat comes close to villages and may even live in deserted houses. The jungle cat lives in heights up to 2500 m, but is more common in the lowlands. Jungle cats hunt in the daytime for rodents, frogs and birds. Those cats living close to bodies of water are able to swim and dive in order to catch fish. This species has been hybridized with the domestic cat, producing the "chausie" breed. During mating season, the male "barks", sounding like a large dog.[3] In captivity, males have been observed to be very protective of their offspring, more than the females of their own species, or males of other cat species.

This species is often assessed as being in no danger and has therefore been ignored as a rare species. In fact, in recent years a clearer picture has showed that this species could well be among the rarest of the small cats in Asia, and definitely the rarest one for which there is no protection within most of its current distribution. The species is assumed to be rare in its marginally African range. It is also assumed to be rather rare throughout the Middle East, where it is heavily hunted and poisoned (the only recent records from Jordan is of poisoned animals) and it is likely that this species is scarce in most parts of the Middle East. The species is assumed to be quite common in the Caucasus, although it is heavily hunted there for its fur.

 


 

Otter

Ottor

The Oriental Small-clawed Otter (Aonyx cinerea), also known as Asian Small-clawed Otter, is the smallest otter species in the world. The Oriental Small-clawed Otter is found in mangrove swamps and freshwater wetlands of Bangladesh, Burma, India, southern China, Taiwan, Laos, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. It prefers to live near water. The full grown otters measure approximately 0.9m from nose to tail tip, and can weigh up to 5kg. It feeds on fish, frogs, crabs, crayfish and shellfish. This otter is especially distinct for its forepaws, as the claws do not extend above the fleshy end pads of its toes and fingers. These attributes give it human-like proficiency and coordination to the point which it can use its paws to feed on mollusks, crabs and other small aquatic animals. The Oriental Small-clawed Otter lives in extended family groups with only the alpha pair breeding and previous offspring helping to raise the young. Due to ongoing habitat loss, pollution and hunting in some areas, the Oriental Small-clawed Otter is evaluated as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. This species was formerly thought to be the only member of the genus Amblonyx, however it has recently been confirmed as Aonyx after mitochrondrial DNA analysis (Koepfli and Wayne, 1998).

 


 

 

Squirrel

Squirrel

A squirrel is one of the many small or medium-sized rodents in the family Sciuridae. In the English-speaking world, "squirrel" commonly refers to members of this family's genera Sciurus and Tamiasciurus, which are tree squirrels with large bushy tails, indigenous to Asia, the Americas and Europe. Similar genera are found in Africa. The Sciuridae family also include flying squirrels, as well as ground squirrels such as the chipmunks, prairie dogs, and woodchucks. Members of the family Anomaluridae are sometimes misleadingly referred to as "scaly-tailed flying squirrels" although they are not closely related to the true squirrels.

Unlike rabbits or deer, squirrels cannot digest cellulose and must rely on foods rich in protein, carbohydrates, and fat. In temperate regions early spring is the hardest time of year for squirrels, since buried nuts begin to sprout and are no longer available for the squirrel to eat, and new food sources have not become available yet. During these times squirrels rely heavily on the buds of trees. Squirrels' diet consists primarily of a wide variety of plant food, including nuts, seeds, conifer cones, fruits, fungi and green vegetation. However some squirrels also consume meat, especially when faced with hunger. [2] Squirrels have been known to eat insect, eggs, small birds, snakes and rodents. Ground and tree squirrels are typically diurnal, while flying squirrels tend to be nocturnal – except for lactating flying squirrels and their offspring, who have a period of diurnality during the summer.[3] Predatory behavior by various species of ground squirrels, particularly the thirteen-lined ground squirrel, has been noted.[4] Bailey, for example, observed a thirteen-lined ground squirrel preying upon a young chicken.[5] Wistrand reported seeing this same species eating a freshly killed snake.[6] Whitaker examined the stomachs of 139 thirteen-lined ground squirrels, and found bird flesh in four of the specimens and the remains of a short-tailed shrew in one;[7] Bradley, examining white-tailed antelope squirrels' stomachs, found at least 10% of his 609 specimens' stomachs contained some type of vertebrate — mostly lizards and rodents.[8] Morgart (1985) observed a white-tailed antelope squirrel capturing and eating a silky pocket mouse.[9] Black squirrels in Russia have been accused of pack behavior in the killing and consumption of a dog.


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